peloponnesian war explained

The Peloponnesian War lasted for over 27 years. As a result, the Peloponnesian War was concluded. For information on user permissions, please read our Terms of Service. The Peloponn-esian War was the most devastating war in the ancient Greek that was between the two most powerful states at that […] The Peloponnesian War. However, rarely did the two sides fight each other alone. The twenty-seven year Peloponnesian War began in 431 BC signifying the symbolic, if not official, end of the “golden age” of peace and cultural advancement of the Hellenic period which existed from the advent of democracy in Athens in 507 BC to the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC The Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta were the central warring factions of the Peloponnesian War with the former holding … • A plague that killed many Athenians helped Sparta defeat Athens. The Peloponnesian War was fought between the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta. Diplomatic efforts to resolve the dispute failed. Sustainability Policy |  The decisive event was the catastrophe suffered by the Athenians in Sicily. The dialogue provides the necessary indication about the aggressive Summary • The wealth, prestige, policies, and power of Athens caused resentment among other city-states. This set the stage for Cleon’s rival Nicias to persuade the Athenians to accept the Spartans’ offer of peace. outbreak of the Peloponnesian War. Sparta decided to retaliate. This war shifted power from Athens to Sparta, making Sparta the most powerful city-state in the region. Finally, in the spring of 431, a Spartan ally, Thebes, attacked an Athenian ally, Plataea, and open war began. Text on this page is printable and can be used according to our Terms of Service. Nothing was the same after the war, and Athens was never to be as powerful. All of the Greek city-states suffered losses of economic and military power. Learning from its past experiences with the Athenian navy, they established a fleet of warships. If you have questions about licensing content on this page, please contact ngimagecollection@natgeo.com for more information and to obtain a license. In the next few years the Athenians took the offensive. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Athens ended up losing the war, bringing an end to the golden age of Ancient Greece. This speech became known as Pericles' Funeral Oration, and it occurred in 431 B.C., just after the start of war. During part of the Peloponnesian War, Athens attacked Melos.The catastrophic results of the war on Melos were a result of what Thucydides called realism. A brief treatment of the Peloponnesian War follows. The walls helped protect Athens from direct assault, and its leader, Pericles, urged Athens not to engage in direct land battles with the Spartans. The war featured two periods of combat separated by a six-year truce. The Peloponnesian War is broken into eight books and is a detailed account of the conflict. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Peloponnesian-War, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Peloponnesian War, Ancient Origins - The Peloponnesian War: Intrigues and Conquests in Ancient Greece, Peloponnesian War - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Peloponnesian War - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Ancient Greek civilization: The Peloponnesian War. title: the Peloponnesian war author: thucydides speaker: thucydides audience: reader context: giving the history of greek tradition, explaining Homer's account of the Trojan war and how it was probably over exaggerated. The Spartan army began by raiding lands within an Athenian allied territory, particularly a region near Athens called Attica. During this time the Spartans dominated the land and the Athenians dominated the sea. Thucydides survived an attack of the plague and left a vivid account of its impact on Athenian morale. The History of the Peloponnesian War (Greek: Ἱστορίαι, "Histories") is a historical account of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), which was fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Athens). The war was fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Athenian league (led by Athens). If you have questions about how to cite anything on our website in your project or classroom presentation, please contact your teacher. Fighting ensued, and the Athenians then took steps that explicitly violated the Thirty Years’ Treaty. The Peloponnesian War was a war fought in ancient Greece between Athens and Sparta—the two most powerful city-states in ancient Greece at the time (431 to 405 B.C.E.). Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Athenian naval forces in the harbour of Syracuse, Sicily, during the Peloponnesian War, 19th-century print. The Peloponnesian War was a war fought in ancient Greece between Athens and Sparta—the two most powerful city-states in ancient Greece at the time (431 to 405 B.C.E.). Sparta was leader of an alliance of independent states that included most of the major land powers of the Peloponnese and central Greece, as well as the sea power Corinth. Each stood at the head of alliances that, … The Peloponnesian War was a war between the Delian League (Athens and its allies) and the Peloponnesian League (Sparta and its allies). Athens and Sparta had fought each other before the outbreak of the Great Peloponnesian War (in what is sometimes called the First Peloponnesian War) but had agreed to a truce, called the Thirty Years’ Treaty, in 445. Ancient Greek politics, philosophy, art and scientific achievements greatly influenced Western civilizations today. Importance of the Peloponnesian War Fought between the allies of Sparta and the empire of Athens, the crippling Peloponnesian War paved the way for the Macedonian takeover of Greece by Philip II of Macedon and, following that, Alexander the Great's empire. They only managed a respite from the After years of open warfare, Sparta offered peace and Athens accepted. The uncertain peace was finally shattered when, in 415, the Athenians launched a massive assault against Sicily. Soon afterward the navy was also beaten, and the Athenians were utterly destroyed as they tried to retreat. One example of their legacy is the Olympic Games. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The war was recorded by Thucydides, an Athenian General, who wrote a book The History of the Peloponnesian War,2 which is read even 's empire. Democracy was overthrown by the oligarchical party, which was in turn replaced by the more moderate regime of the Five Thousand. Thucydides, who wrote about this war in his book “The History of the Peloponnesian War”, is considered one of … Athens built long walls all the way from the city to its seaport Piraeus. List of every major Peloponnesian War battle, including photos, images, or maps of the most famous Peloponnesian War battles when available. They attacked the Sicilian city Syracuse and campaigned in western Greece and the Peloponnese itself. Nothing was the same after the war, and Athens was never to be as powerful. The Athenian alliance was, in fact, an empire that included most of the island and coastal states around the northern and eastern shores of the Aegean Sea. The Peloponnesian War was a very important event for Greece in this era. The two immensely powerful city states had been at each other’s throats for years in the first Peloponnesian war. Introduction. There is, for example, his famous multifaceted treatment of the short- and long-term causes of the Spartan-Athenian war (on which see S. N. Jaffe’s recent and wise commentary in War on the Rocks. ) • The Peloponnesian War weakened all of the Greek city-states for 50 years. The historian Thucydides wrote about the speech of Pericles in his “History of the Peloponnesian War.” Thucydides wrote that the speech was reproduced from his memory and was a loose account only. The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. The Peloponnesian War was a war fought between Sparta and Athens. This war consisted of a series of conflicts and minor wars, such as the Second Sacred War. The destruction from the Peloponnesian War weakened and divided the Greeks for years to come, eventually allowing the Macedonians an opportunity to conquer them in the mid-4 th century BCE. The Peloponnesian War was a war between the Delian League (Athens and its allies) and the Peloponnesian League (Sparta and its allies). Corrections? Chapter 6: Beginning of the Peloponnesian War—First Invasion of Attica— Funeral Oration of Pericles Theban forces try to take the city of Plataea, but are routed from the town. One of Sparta’s allies, Corinth, had directly engaged the Athenian army. The treaty stated that Athens and Sparta would defend each other for the next 50 years. The Peloponnesian War, one of the most significant events in ancient Greek history, enveloped the city-states of the ancient Greek world, forever changing the region. You cannot download interactives. It was a struggle for power between the ancient Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta. Even after gaining reinforcements in 413, the Athenian army was defeated again. Updates? Each stood at the head of alliances that, between them, included nearly every Greek city-state. But 27 years! Chapter I The State of Greece from the earliest Times to the Commencement of the Peloponnesian War Thucydides, an Athenian, wrote the history of the war between the Peloponnesians and the Athenians, beginning at the moment that it broke out, and believing that it would be a great war and more worthy of relation than any that had preceded it. Athens’ defeat was perhaps the worst casualty in a war that crippled Greek military strength, and thus the most culturally advanced Greek state was brought into final eclipse. The Peloponnesian war lasted 27 years, and it occurred for many different reasons. A fragment of the fourth book of the History of the Peloponnesian War. Sparta and Athens were always in disagreement. Terms of Service |  Thucydides's The History of the Peloponnesian War Chapter Summary. The Peloponnesian War was a war fought in ancient Greece between Athens and Sparta—the two most powerful city-states in ancient Greece at the time (431 to 405 B.C.E.). Athens and Sparta had previously quarreled in the decades prior to the war. of the Peloponnesian War. While it is not a comprehensive list of all skirmishes, conflicts, or battles that took place in the Peloponnesian War, we have tried to include as many military events and actions as possible. The so-called Peace of Nicias began in 421 and lasted six years. On the advice of Pericles, its most influential leader, Athens refused to back down. Cities and crops were destroyed, and thousands of Greeks died. This period of the war was concluded in 421 BC, with the signing … However, it was quite a lengthy conflict, and is usually split into several distinct phases. Thucydides, who wrote about this war in his book “The Fought between the allies of Sparta and the empire of Athens, the crippling Peloponnesian War paved the way for the Macedonian takeover of Greece by Philip II of Macedon and, following that, Alexander the Great 's empire. Further, the Athenians were better prepared financially than their enemies, owing to the large war chest they had amassed from the regular tribute they received from their empire. Instead, shame, honor, and factional tribalism explained both strife and decision-making. The Peloponnesian War is traditionally divided into three phases: the Archidamian War (431-421), the Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition (420-413), and the Ionian War (412-404). Sparta became the leading power of Greece. Simultaneous to the end of this conflict came the end of the golden age of ancient Greece. Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. official agreement between groups of people. Croix’s rival 1972 treatment of the Peloponnesian War (The Origins of the The First Peloponnesian War (460–445 BC) was fought between Sparta as the leaders of the Peloponnesian League and Sparta's other allies, most notably Thebes, and the Delian League led by Athens with support from Argos. Conflict came the end of this conflict came the end of 411 the rebuilt navy. Was one of Sparta ’ s rival Nicias to persuade the Athenians had built walls stretching from seaport. 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